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العودة   منتدى عالم الصيادلة | صيادلة على خطى الحبيب | Pharmacists world > منتديات الصيدله > عالم الادوية و التركيبات الدوائية
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فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

عالم الادوية و التركيبات الدوائية

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أدوات الموضوع
قديم 07-06-2011, 08:21 PM   #21
علي الاهدل
 
الصورة الرمزية علي الاهدل

 








علي الاهدل غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

ماشاء الله عليك
بجد ساحره بصراحه انا معجب جدا بمواضيعك لأنها مواضيع مهمه
الله يوفقك
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قديم 08-06-2011, 03:45 PM   #22
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

ربنا يخليك شكرا
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قديم 08-06-2011, 04:02 PM   #23
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

Anatomy of Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is differentiated into the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis),
the posteriorpituitary (neurohypophysis),
and pars intermedia
(avascular zone in between


Pea-shaped, 1/2 inch gland found in sella turcica of sphenoid
Infundibulum attaches it to brain
Anterior lobe = 75%
develops from roof of mouth

Consists of
Pars distalis
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia


Posterior lobe = 25%
ends of axons of 10,000 neurons found in hypothalamus
neuroglial cells called pituicytes

Consists of pars nervosa
which is connected by infundibulum)pituitary stalk to median eminence of hypothalamus
relationship between pituitary and hypothalamus
The true master gland
regulates the endocrine system through it’s direct connection to the pituitary gland


a-It produce both releasing and inhibiting hormones
which travel by hypothalmus hypophyseal portal circulation
to pituitary gland to control its secretions.
b-Produces ADH and Oxytocin which
are transported to the posterior pituitary
by hypothalmus hypophyseal portal tract
where they will stored in posterior pituitary until they released
paraventricular nucleus produce oxytocin
supraoptic nucleus produce antiduiretic hormone




التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة : صيدلانية مصرية بتاريخ 08-06-2011 الساعة 05:57 PM
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قديم 08-06-2011, 04:05 PM   #24
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

Anterior Pituitary Gland (Adenohypophysis)

The blood supply to the anterior pituitary is from the superiorhypophyseal arteries.
Hormones of the anterior pituitary and the cells that produce the:
Human growth hormone (hGH) is secreted by somatotrophs.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by thyrotrophs.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted by gonadotrophs.
Prolactin (PRL) is secreted by lactrotrophs.
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are secreted by corticotrophs.

posterior pituitary(neurohyposis
not synthesize hormones
but store hormones which released by hypothalamus
ex adh&oxytocin

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة : صيدلانية مصرية بتاريخ 08-06-2011 الساعة 05:33 PM
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قديم 08-06-2011, 11:27 PM   #25
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

A. Antidiuretic Hormone Terminology
Official name:

Vasopressin (because it raises blood pressure
when present at high concentrations;
in the physiological range of concentrations,
its main action is on water permeability)
. Abbreviated ADH (AntiDiuretic Hormone



B. Synthesis and Release
a- Synthesized in the hypothalamic neurosecretory cells

b- Migrate by axonal transport to nerve endings in the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
c.- Stored in the posterior pituitary



d-. Released into the posterior pituitary capillaries when the neurosecretory cells discharge (action potentials)





Transport and Action
a-. Transported to all parts of the body by the circulation, but major action is in the kidney but also has extra renal action
renal action

a-Collecting duct action
binds to V2 receptors on Principal cells of the collecting duct, causing an increase in water permeability by inducing water channels (aquaporins) stored in intracellular vesicles to fuse with the luminal membrane (major effect)
Note: The effect on water permeability is graded -- the higher the ADH concentration, the more receptor sites occupied, and the greater the water permeability (up to the maximum effect



b--ADH also increase flow of urea into medullary intrstitum and so help in water reabsorption
c- enhance secretion of K to antagonise the decreased potassium secretions due to decreased urine flow
d-induce prostaglandinE locally production to maintain renal perfusion to antagonise it is vasoconstritor effect
extrarenal action
a-increaseACTH release so increase cortisol secondary in stress conditions to antagonise stressful conditions
b-make vasoconstriction so increase arterial blood pressure



التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة : صيدلانية مصرية بتاريخ 09-06-2011 الساعة 12:01 AM
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قديم 08-06-2011, 11:41 PM   #26
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

D. Control of ADH Release
ADH release is controlled by influences which excite (causing release) or inhibit excitation of the ADH neurosecretory cells, among which are the following:

Hypothalamic osmoreceptors (major influence)
a-osmoreceptors are specialized afferent cells in the hypothalamus that generate action potentials in proportion to interstitial fluid and blood plasma) osmotic activity ,they are silent when osmotic activity is low)

b. make excitatory synapses with ADH neurosecretory cells
c. when Plasma Osmolality increase => ADH release
d. located outside the blood-brain barrier
e. very sensitive receptors; small increase in osmolality is sufficient to significantly increase ADH secretion rate


. Blood volume
a. mediated by stretch-sensitive (low pressure baroreceptors or vascular volume receptors which are located in right and left atria also in grat veins)

b. blood volume decrease => ADH release
c. less sensitive (high threshold): decrease in blood volume by 10% required for significant ADH increase
d. potent: once threshold is passed (e.g. serious dehydration or hemorrhage), can cause large increase in ADH
Other influences
a. inhibit ADH release: cold, ethanol, alpha agonist


b. increase ADH release: stress, nausea, hypoxia, nicotine, pain, morphine,exercise




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قديم 09-06-2011, 12:35 AM   #27
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

distrubance of adh secretions
diabetes insipidus(DI
[IMG]http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A2KJkIXy6u9NMRIAQoOjzbkF/SIG=12p0cfc6l/EXP=1307597682/**http%3a//i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd440/drknp/DiabetesInsipidus.jpg[/IMG]
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water which leads to frequent urination and thirst(large volume urine with no solutes
a- neurogenic
deficinecy of ADH due to disease in hypothalamus,posterior pituitary or hypothalamus hypophyseal tract
b-nephrogenic
defect in collecting duct of kidney so not respond to ADH
it may be
hereditary
acquired
bydrugs ex(lithium&demeclocycline
or by hypokalemia or
by hypercalcemia
c-essential hypernatrameia(familial diabetes insipidus
hereditary defect in osmoreceptors oF hypothalamus so not respond to changes in osmotic preesure
clinical picture
polyuria
polydipesia
fever
dehydreation
collapse
investigation
A-hypertonic NACLtest
stimulate osmoreceptors so oliguria
this is negative in familial diabetes insipidus
b-nicotine test
nicotine injection stimulate hypothalamus so oliguria
this is negatve in diabetes insipidus
c-vassopressin test
given intravenous so olig uria
negative in nephrogenic DI
D-assay of ADH
if neurogenicDIdecrease
if nephrogenicDI normal or high
treatment
vassopressin(desmopressin
as nasal spray
.
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قديم 09-06-2011, 12:39 AM   #28
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

يتبع بمشيئة الله
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قديم 12-06-2011, 03:39 PM   #29
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

Oxytocin Hormone
nona peptide
synsythiezed by hypothalamus
stored in posterior pituitary
secreted from posterior pituitary and circulate in blood to reach itis target organs to bind with receptors in
breast myoepithelial cells
uterine myometrium
plain muscles in vas deferens
mechanism of secretions
itis secreted by neurohormonal reflux
stimuli for secretion
a-suckling from nipple&hearing baby cry stimulate milk ejrction
b-dilation of cervix during labour
c-sexual intercourse
these stimuli send impulses through spinal cord to reach hypothalamic nuceli to release oxytocin oxytocin from posterior pituitary to itis target organs


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قديم 12-06-2011, 05:50 PM   #30
صيدلانية مصرية

 








صيدلانية مصرية غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي رد: فسيولوجيا الجسم البشرى

action of oxytocin
on mammory gland
stimulate contraction of myeoepithelial cells surrounding mammary gland alveoli which expel milk on ducts by baby suckling

on sexual intercourse
it contract vas deferens causing ejaculation of semen on males
aid in transport of semen from vagina to uterus on females
on labour
it contract uterus myometrial epithelia to expel baby and placenta

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة : صيدلانية مصرية بتاريخ 12-06-2011 الساعة 05:53 PM
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